Articles & Papers

1. Sruti in Ancient, Medieval and Modern Contexts   by Dr.N.Ramanathan, Head, Department of Music, Madras University, Chennai on Sruthis. This article puts the entire subject in proper perspective and is a refreshing departure from the practice of assigning frequencies to the 22 sruthis (in my view, without adequate analytical evidence on present day music) The article was first published under the title "SRUTI-S ACCORDING TO ANCIENT TEXTS" in the Journal of the Indian Musicological Society, Baroda. Sept. & Dec.1981, Vol.12, No.s 3&4, pp.31-37. It was later revised and presented as a paper at seminar under the title "SRUTI - ITS UNDERSTANDING IN THE ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PERIODS" in the National Seminar on Perpetuation and Preservation of Indian Classical Music, Historical Continuity

2. The web site http://musicresearchlibrary.net/omeka/ maintained by Dr.N.Ramanathan has a large number of research oriented articles by different scholars.


3. Synthesizing Carnatic Music with a Computer. Article by M.Subramanian (author of this web site) published in Sangeet Natak (Journal of Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, India) No's 133,134, 1999, pp 16-24.

4. "An analysis of Gamakams using the Computer" by M.Subramanian published in Sangeet Natak, Vol.XXXVII, Number 1. 2002, pp 26-47. This article analyses the gamaakms of of Maayaamaalavagowla sung/played by different artistes and also has appendices on techniques of frequency analysis of digital music, the cyclic cent system etc. You can download gamcomp.zip the zipped version of this article

5. "Carnatic Ragam Thodi: Pitch Analysis of Notes and Gamakams" by M.Subramanian published in Sangeet Natak, VolXLI, No.1, 2007 pp 3-28. Download this in .pdf format (90 kb) .

6. "The 'Maya' of Pitch and Frequency" is an article by M.Subramanian, included in the web site of Dr.Ramanathan (2 above) and explains the inappropriateness of totally correlating pitch and frequency especially for notes sung entirely with gamakam. Click here to download a zip file (170 kb)containing the article, the audio referred to therein and the Gaayaka file from which it was generated.

7. "Carnatic Music: Automatic Computer Synthesis of Gamakams" - Article by M.Subramanian, published in 'Sangeet Natak',Vol. XLIII, Nov., 2009. Click here to download a copy of the article in .pdf format (46 kb). A brief description of the subject with audio samples are available at http://gamakam.tripod.com.

8. A paper was presented in the 2nd Computer Music Workshop held at Istanbul on the 12th and 13 July, 2012, on the above subject of Automatic Gamakam insertion covering in addition to the basic question of insertion of gamakam, other aspects involved in transformig printed notation or notation available on the internet, into full fledged notation with gamakam. The paper is available here. The presentation slides (converted into html format) along with audio links maybe seen here.

9. "The Implied Samvaditva in Carnatic Music" ,Article by M.Subramanian, published in 'Samakalika Sangeetham',(Kozhikode),No.8, April,2010. Click here to download a zipped copy of the article (11kb) in .doc format.

10. Tracing Carnatic Music style to ancient Tamil works (paper by M.Subramanian accepted for publication in Sangeet Natak) Download the .pdf file

11. Translation of the Melam Scheme part of Venkatamakhi's Chaturdandiprakasika which is the basis of the presently used classification https://carnatic2000.tripod.com/JSA/Chaturdandi.pdf


Dr. Madhumohan Komaragiri , musician and musicologist has worked on pitch analysis of Carnatic Music using the computer and the concept of 22 Sruthis as part of his Ph.D. thesis. His publications may be accessed at www.madhumohan.com/musicologist.html. The home page of his web site has many more links.


Arvindh Krishnaswamy , Stanford University, USA is working on the intonation in Carnatic Music using Digital Signal Processing. Two papers have been published by him (a)Pitch Measurements Versus Perception of South Indian Classical Music and (b) Appllication of Pitch Tracking to South Indian Classical Music . These are in .pdf format and may be downloaded from http://www-ccrma.stanford.edu/~arvindh/cmt/. This page also contains links to download the music clips which have been the subject of the analysis in the papers.